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Antibiotics, Antibacterial & Antimicrobials

We are a leading Wholesaler of dopamine hydrochloride (dopamine hcl) (cas number: 62-31-7), gentamicin sulfate (cas number: 1405-41-0), neomycin sulphate (cas number: 1405-10-3), streptomycin sulphate (cas number 3810-74-0), bacitracin (cas number: 1405-87-4) and bacitracin zinc (cas number: 1405-89-6) from Mumbai, India.
Dopamine Hydrochloride (Dopamine HCL) (CAS Number: 62-31-7)

Dopamine Hydrochloride (Dopamine HCL) (CAS Number: 62-31-7)

Rs 1,000  / KgGet Best Price
Packaging Size1 kg / 5 kg / 10 kg / 25 kg
Packaging TypeBottle / Drum
Physical StatePowder
ColorWhite to Off White
Purity>98%
CAS Number62-31-7
Molecular Weight189.64
Linear Formula(HO)2C6H3CH2CH2NH2 . HCl
Synonym: 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine hydrochloride, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine hydrochloride, 3-Hydroxytyramine hydrochloride, 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol hydrochloride

General description : 

Dopamine (DA) works as neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It is a catecholamine made from the amino acid L-tyrosine. It also works as a hormone in vesicles of the adrenal medulla, thereby controlling heart beat rate and blood pressure. Absence of DA-containing neurons is associated with parkinson’s disease.

Application : 

• Dopamine hydrochloride has been used to study dopamine-mediated transient modulation of the physiological responses in whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.
• It has been used to study dopamine-mediated changes in immunity susceptibility to Lactococcus garvieae in the freshwater giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
• It has been used to study the molecular link between dopamine-induced oxidative stress and mHtt (mutant Huntingtin) toxicity in relation to the activation of the autophagy pathway in an ‘in vitro’ model of parkinsonian Huntington′s Disease.

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Gentamicin Sulfate (CAS Number: 1405-41-0)

Gentamicin Sulfate (CAS Number: 1405-41-0)

Rs 1,000  / KgGet Best Price
Packaging Size10 Bou / 15.4 kgs
Packaging TypeBottle / Drum
ColorWhite to Off White
Physical StatePowder
AssayMin. 590 micrograms/mg
CAS Number1405-41-0
Molecular Weight575.67
Chemical FormulaC21H43N5O7 . H2SO4
Synonym: Gentamicin sulfate salt

Gentamicin, sold under brand name Garamycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections. This may include bone infections, endocarditis, pelvic inflammatory disease, meningitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis among others. It is not effective for gonorrhea or chlamydia infections. It can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle, or topically. Topical formulations may be used in burns or for infections of the outside of the eye. It is often only used for two days until bacterial cultures determine what specific antibiotics the infection is sensitive to. The dose required should be monitored by blood testing.

Gentamicin can cause inner ear problems and kidney problems. The inner ear problems can include problems with balance and hearing loss. These problems may be permanent. If used during pregnancy, it can cause harm to the developing baby. However, it appears to be safe for use during breastfeeding. Gentamicin is a type of aminoglycoside. It works by disrupting the ability of the bacteria to make proteins, which typically kills the bacteria.

Gentamicin is naturally produced by the bacterium Micromonospora purpurea, was patented in 1962, approved for medical use in 1964, and is currently on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. The World Health Organization classifies gentamicin as critically important for human medicine. It is available as a generic medication.


General description : 

Chemical structure: aminoglycoside


Application : 

Gentamicin sulfate, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, used as a selection agent (gentamicin-resistance gene) in cell culture and molecular biology applications. This product is recommended for use at 50 mg/L.

Biochem/physiol Actions : 

Mode of action: Gentamicin causes codon misreading by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit, blocking the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the acceptor site to the donor site.   The bactericidal effect of gentamicin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exerted by the binding of gentamicin to the outer membrane, where it displaces natural cations, destabilizes the membrane, and forms holes in the cell surface. 

Antimicrobial spectrum: Includes Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including strains resistant to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and colistin, particularly strains of Pseudomonas, Proteus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.

Components : 

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside complex produced by fermentation of Micromonospora purpurea or M. echinospora. It is used as the sulfate salt. There are three components, each consisting of five basic nitrogens and requiresing five equivalents of sulfuric acid per mole of gentamicin base.

Caution : 

Sterile solutions should be stored at 2-8°C. Solutions have also been shown to be stable at room temperature and in boiling aqueous buffers of pH 2-142.

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Neomycin Sulphate (CAS Number: 1405-10-3)

Neomycin Sulphate (CAS Number: 1405-10-3)

Rs 1,000  / BouGet Best Price
Packaging TypeBottle / Drum
Packaging Size6 Bou / 20 Bou
Physical StatePowder
AssayMin. 680 microgram/mg
CAS Number1405-10-3
Molecular Weight908.88 (anhydrous basis)
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation)C23H46N6O13 . 3H2SO4 . xH2O
Synonym: Neomycin trisulfate salt hydrate

Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that displays bactericidal activity against gram-negative aerobic bacilli and some anaerobic bacilli where resistance has not yet arisen. It is generally not effective against gram-positive bacilli and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. Neomycin comes in oral and topical formulations, including creams, ointments, and eyedrops. Neomycin belongs to the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics that contain two or more amino sugars connected by glycosidic bonds.

Neomycin was discovered in 1949 by microbiologist Selman Waksman and his student Hubert Lechevalier at Rutgers University. Neomycin received approval for medical use in 1952. Rutgers University was granted the patent for neomycin in 1957.


General description : 

Chemical structure: aminoglycoside

Application : 

Neomycin Trisulfate is produced by Streptomyces containing a minimum of 85% neomycin B. It has been used as a selection agent for prokaryotic cells that have been transformed using the selectable marker gene (neo), and to study ototoxic side effects of antibiotics, platelet-derived growth factor responses in certain fibroblasts, and extraction of Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate-Interacting Proteins.

Biochem/physiol Actions : 

Mode of action: This product acts by binding to the 30S and 50S subunits, causing miscoding and inhibiting initiation and elongation during protein synthesis. Neomycin also blocks voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels without affecting the Na+/Ca2+ antiporter in neurons.

Antimicrobial spectrum: Neomycin acts against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Caution : 

Stock solutions should be filter sterilized and stored at 2-8°C, and are stable at 37°C for 5 days. A 1 mg/mL neomycin solution in .1 M phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 should be used within 14 days when stored at 0-5°C. Solutions should be protected from light or moisture.

Preparation Note : 

Neomycin sulfate is soluble in H2O at 50 mg/mL, yielding a clear solution.

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Streptomycin Sulphate (CAS Number 3810-74-0)

Streptomycin Sulphate (CAS Number 3810-74-0)

Rs 1,000  / KgGet Best Price
Packaging Size1 kg / 5 kg / 10 kg / 25 kg
Packaging TypeBottle / Drum
ColorWhite to Off White
Physical StatePowder
CAS Number3810-74-0
AssayMin. 720 unit/mg
Molecular Weight728.69
Linear FormulaC21H39N7O12 . 1.5 H2SO4
Synonym: Streptomycin sulfate salt

Streptomycinis anantibioticmedication used to treat a number of bacterial infections,includingtuberculosis,Mycobacterium avium complex,endocarditis,brucellosis,Burkholderia infection,plague,tularemia, andrat bite fever.For active tuberculosis it is often given together withisoniazid,rifampicin, andpyrazinamide.It is administered byinjection into a veinormuscle.

Common side effects include vertigo, vomiting, numbness of the face, fever, and rash. Use during pregnancy may result in permanent deafness in the developing baby. Use appears to be safe while breastfeeding. It is not recommended in people with myasthenia gravis or other neuromuscular disorders. Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside. It works by blocking the ability of 30S ribosomal subunits to make proteins, which results in bacterial death.

Albert Schatzfirst isolated streptomycin in 1943 fromStreptomyces griseus.It is on theWorld Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.The World Health Organization classifies it as critically important for human medicine.

General description : 

Chemical structure: aminoglycoside


Application : 

Streptomycin is used to study mechanisms of streptomycin resistance and is often used together with penicillin and other agents to inhibit bacterial contamination in cell culture applications. It is recommended for use in molecular biology applications at 25-50μg/mL, in cell culture applications at 100 mg/L and in embryo culture at 50 mg/L.

Biochem/physiol Actions : 

Mode of Action: Streptomycin acts by inhibiting prokaryote protein synthesis by binding to the S12 protein of the 30S ribosomal subunit, thus preventing the transition from imitation complex to chain-elongating ribosome. This causes miscoding or inhibits initiation.

Mode of Resistance: A mutation in rpsL, a gene for S12 ribosomal protein, prevents binding of streptomycin to the ribosome. An aminoglycoside phosphotransferase also inactivates streptomycin.

Antimicrobial spectrum: Streptomycin acts against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

Caution : 

Solutions can be stored at 2-8°C for up to a month or at -20°C for more extended periods. At 37°C, solutions are stable for three days.

Preparation Note : 

Stock solutions should be prepared directly in the vial with sterile water at concentrations between 20-25 mg/mL.

 

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Bacitracin (CAS Number: 1405-87-4)

Bacitracin (CAS Number: 1405-87-4)

Rs 1,000  / KgGet Best Price
Physical StatePowder
ColorWhite to Off-White
Packaging Size1 kg / 5 kg / 10 kg / 25 kg
Packaging TypeBottle / Drum
CAS Number1405-87-4
Assay / ActivityMin. 65 U/mg
Molecular Weight1422.69
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation)C66H103N17O16S

Bacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic peptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy, first isolated in 1945. These peptides disrupt Gram-positive bacteria by interfering with cell wall and peptidoglycan synthesis.

Bacitracin is primarily used as a topical preparation, as it can cause kidney damage when used internally.

Antibiotics such as bacitracin have been shown to act as dermatological irritants and may slow healing in otherwise sterile wounds.

General description : 

Chemical structure: peptide

Application : 

Bacitracin is used to study disruption of bacterial cell wall synthesis at the level of peptidoglycan cross-linking and isoprenyl metabolism. It is also used to study the biosynthesis of sterols and squalene.
Bacitracin has been used:
• as a protease inhibitor
• as a control antibiotic
• for the calibration in size exclusion chromatography

Biochem/physiol Actions : 

Bacitracin is a peptide antibiotic.

Antimicrobial spectrum: Gram-positive bacteria.
Mode of Action: Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting dephosphorylation of lipid pyrophosphate.
Bacitracin has been shown to decrease vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium population in intestine.

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Bacitracin Zinc (CAS Number: 1405-89-6)

Bacitracin Zinc (CAS Number: 1405-89-6)

Rs 1,000  / KgGet Best Price
Physical StatePowder
ColorWhite to Light Yellowish-Grey
Packaging Size1 kg / 5 kg / 15 kg
Packaging TypeBottle / Drum
Assay / ActivityMin. 65 U/mg
CAS Number1405-89-6
Molecular Weight1486.07
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation)C66H101N17O16SZn
Synonym: Bacitracin zinc salt, Zinc bacitracin

General description : 

Chemical structure: peptide

Application : 

Bacitracin zinc salt is a peptide antibiotic used to study dysruption of bacterial cell wall synthesis at the level of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and isoprenyl metabolism. It is used to study the biosynthesis of sterols and squalene.

Biochem/physiol Actions :

Bacitracin is a protease inhibitor. Antimicrobial spectrum: Gram-positive bacteria.
Mode of Action: Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting dephosphorylation of lipid pyrophosphate.

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Kanamycin Acid Sulphate (CAS Number: 64013-70-3)

Kanamycin Acid Sulphate (CAS Number: 64013-70-3)

Rs 1,000  / KgGet Best Price
Packaging TypeBottle / Drum
Packaging Size1 kg / 5 kg / 10 kg / 25 kg
ColorWhite
Physical StatePowder
AssayNot less than 650 IU per mg
CAS Number64013-70-3

Synonym: Kanamycin A, Kanamycin acid sulfate


General description : 

Chemical structure: aminoglycoside

Application : 

Kanamycin sulfate is a broad spectrum minoglycoside-antibiotic It is used as an additive in culture media for the isolation of group D Streptococci on Kanamycin Esculin Azide Agar (Mossel et al.) or for selection of transformed plant cells containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (for kanamycin resistance); on a kanamycin-medium. Kanamycin has been used for electrophysiological recordings of outer hair cells and inner hair cells. It is used to inhibit shoot regeneration from Siberian Elmleaf explants. It is recommended for use in cell culture applications at 100 mg/mL.

Biochem/physiol Actions : 

Mode of Action: The product acts by binding to the 70S ribosomal subunit, inhibiting translocation and eliciting miscoding.

Mode of Resistance: Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (including acetyltransferase, phosphotransferase, nucleotidyltransferase) can alter this antibiotic, preventing its interaction with ribosomes.

Antimicrobial Spectrum: Kanamycin sulfate is effective against gram-negative and gram-postiive bacteria, and mycoplasma.

Caution : 

Solutions are stable at 37°C for approximately 5 days. Aqueous stock solutions can be stored at 2-8°C for long term storage.

Preparation Note : 

Kanamycin acid sulfate is prepared by solubilizing kanamycin sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid and drying. The sulfate content is approximately 25%.

Kanamycin sulfate is soluble in water at 10 mg/mL, yielding a clear solution. It is practically insoluble in alcohol, acetone, chloroform, ether and ethyl acetate. A 1% solution in water has a pH of 6.5 to 8.5. Sterile solutions can be prepared by a sterile filtration, through a .2μm filter.

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